Civilization in word means the process by which a society develops its own culture and institutions. Civilization also comes from a Greek word, civitas that means city. Early civilization in the world such as the Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt and Hwang Ho developed at the river valley as the location of their early settlement. This is because of the fertility of the soil at the environment of the valley is very suitable for them to perform their agriculture activities. Besides, the selection of the valley is due to the existence of water supply, food, transportation and communication. This factor explains to us why almost all of the civilization formed at the river valley.
The existence of permanent settlement is one of the prime characteristic of the emergence of the earlier civilization. By living in a permanent residential, the society lives a systematic live. The chosen area is very important to maintain the continuity of the food. The result of the human innovation later produce advancement in agriculture such as food storage, animal breeding and the usage of new technology such as irrigation technology. The development also increases the production and lead to excessive production. This excessive production of food can cover up the increasing of the total number of the resident of the civilization.
The increasing of total number of the resident of the civilization later lead to organizational life which include social, political and economical aspect. The organizational life helps to arrange the society’s way to ascertain their stability and prosperity. In the earlier period of civilization, the social organization consist of the simplest phase which is the family. The increasing of the total number of the resident of the civilization and the variety of economical activities brought the civilization towards to a more complex society division process. The social system of the earlier civilization usually in the form of a pyramid. The first layer is the noble group who lead the government lead by the king. Next is the prominent group who lead the religious activities apart from the king. There are also some individual who are very respected in societies such as the family leader the leader of the group, followed by the normal residents. This social system ended with the slave group.
To bridle the bigger society, the government system were formed to perform a systematic management . The existence of the government system later produced the law system which guided the society to keep the peacefulness and the prosperity of a civilization.
When a society from the civilization starts the agriculture activity, they yield more than enough food. The excessive food production lead them to job specialization. The increasing of the human productivity cause the job specialization to be more important. This situation also directly leads to prosperity and towards political stability which also brought the civilization towards the increasing and the development of the economy. Products were produced by the expertise of some group. The products were later changed or replaced or also known as the barter system. This system is the starter of the earlier trading activities. The barter system also lead toward the change of knowledge, technology and culture between a society and another society. The dynamic of the economical activities is very important not only to the growing and the development of a civilization but also to its relationship with another civilization.
Religion and belief played important roles in the development of the civilization. This is because both of it relates with the recognition towards the leader, division of the society classes, development of the knowledge, arts and the construction in the process of the development of the earlier civilization. The emergence process of the civilization started when the human try to adjust their life with the environment. In certain society, the environment such as the tree, rock, the sun and the sea are believed to have the spirit and needed to be respected. It is also believed that by doing so, the society can keep their peacefulness and prosperity. Human at the earlier stage of the civilization believe that there’s mysterious spirit that control the environment. This believe is also known as the animism. By evolution, this evolution turns to religion where the religion of this civilization is known as the polytheism which means the believe of more than one God.
Last but not least, the invention of the writing system and the language are the part of the development of the earlier civilization and we can see the results until today. The oldest language includes the Greece and the Sanskrit or the ancient language of India while the earliest form of writing is the hieroglyph, cuneiform and ideogram. Language and the writing system are very important in spreading the knowledge and the relationship between a society and another. The production of the writing system is very important in managing activities such as recording, law and religious writing. Language and writing are the best instrument to deliver, develop and to note down human’s idea.
All of the civilization’s characteristics stated above are related to each other. This process develop faster in the city. That’s why, the emergence of the earlier cities played important roles in the development process of the civilization. A city also plays the role of the centre of the government, economical activities, religious and ritual, knowledge development, and the centre for the citizen to meet up. Generally, there are a lot of factor causing the development of the civilization.